Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
One Sunday morning, when the animals assembled to receive their orders, Napoleon announced that he had decided upon a new policy. “From now onwards Animal Farm would engage in trade with the neighbouring farms: not, of course, for any commercial purpose, but simply in order to obtain certain materials which were urgently necessary.”
(i) Why did the animals need ‘certain materials’?
What arrangements had Napoleon made to engage in trade with the neighbouring farms?
(ii) Why did Napoleon’s announcement make the animals uneasy?
(iii) What did Squealer say to the animals to ease their doubts and fears?
(iv) Who was Mr. Whymper? What had he agreed to do?
Why had he entered into this agreement with Napoleon?
(v) There was a change in the attitude of the humans towards Animal Farm. Comment on this change. What were the signs and symptoms of this change?
(i) • They needed certain materials to construct the windmill
• Napoleon arranged to sell a stack of hay and part of the current year’s wheat crop.
• Later on, if they needed more money it would be made up by the sale of eggs for which there was always a market in Willingdon.
(ii) • Animals were uneasy because Napoleon was violating some of their earliest resolutions.
• Never to have any dealings with humans
• Never to engage in trade – never to use money.
(iii) Squealer assured the animals:
• That the resolution against engaging in trade and using money had never been passed.
• That they were a bunch of lies that had probably been spread by snowball.
• That the animals had probably dreamt of such resolutions. Asked if they had any written record of such resolutions – this convinced the animals that they were making a mistake.
(iv) • Mr. Whymper was a solicitor living in Willingdon
• To act as intermediary between Animal Farm and the outside world.
• Shrewd man – realised that Animal Farm would need a broker and that the commissions from this would be worth having.
(v) Humans continued to hate Animal Farm and did not wish it well, but
• They developed a certain respect for
• The efficiency with which the animals managed their own affairs.
• One symptom – they began to call ‘Animal Farm’ by its proper name – ceased to pretend that it was called Manor Farm.
• The humans stopped supporting Farmer Jones – he had given up all hope of ever getting the farm back and had moved to another part of the town.